Taxonomy of Extant apes and human





Taxonomy according to Goodman (1999)
Source:
Goodman M. (1999) The natural history of the primates.  
"MOLECULAR EVOLUTION'99:The Genomic Record of Humankind's Evolutionary Roots"
America Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 64, pp. 31-39

Family Hominidae
  Subfamily Homininae
     Tribe Hylobatini
        Subtribe Hylobatina
           Sympbalangus: siamangs
           Hylobates: gibbons
     Tribe Hominini           
        Subtribe Pongina, Pongo: orangutans
        Subtribe Hominina
            Gorilla: gorillas
              Homo (Homo): humans
              Homo (Pan): chimpanzees, bonobo
return to top


Taxonomy according to Groves (1997)
Source:
Gloves C. P. (1997) Taxonomy and phylogeny of primates.  In Blancher A., Klein J., and Socha W. W.(eds.)
"Molecular Biology and Evolution of Blood Group and MHC Antigens in Primates"
Springer-Verlag, Berlin.  ISBN 3-540-61636-5

Hylobatidae (gibbon and siamong)
              Hylobates [four subgenera may be full genera]
             	subgenus Hylobates
                     Hylobates agilis (agile gibbon)
                     	Hylobates agilis agilis
                     	Hylobates agilis albibarbis
                     Hylobates klossii (Kloss gibbon; bilou) 
                     Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon; lar gibbon)
                        Hylobates lar lar
                        Hylobates lar vestitus  
                     Hylobates molock (silvery gibbon)
                     Hylobates muelleri (Mueller's Bornean gibbon) [these may be subspecies of Hylobates agilis]
                        Hylobates muelleri muelleri
                        Hylobates muelleri funereus
                        Hylobates muelleri abbotti 
                     Hylobates pileatus  (pileated gibbon)
              	subgenus Nomascus
                     Hylobates concolor (conclor gibbon; black crested gibbon) 
                        Hylobates concolor concolr
                        Hylobates concolor hainanus
                        Hylobates concolor jingdongensis
                        Hylobates concolor furvogaster
                        Hylobates concolor lu
                     Hylobates gabriellae (red-cheeked gibbon) 
                     Hylobates leukogenys (white-cheeked gibbon) 
             	subgenus Bunopithecus
                     Hylobates hoolock (Hoolock gibbon)
                        Hylobates hoolock hoolock
                        Hylobates hoolock leuconedys
                subgenus Symphalangus
                     Hylobates syndactylus (siamang) 
             
Hominidae (great apes and human)
	subfamily Ponginae
              Pongo
                    Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan) 
                        Pongo pygmaeus abelii [it may be a distinct species]
                        Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus
                        Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii
	subfamily Homininae
              Gorilla
                    Gorilla gorilla (gorilla) 
                        Gorilla gorilla beringei [it may be a distinct species] 
                        Gorilla gorilla gorilla
                        Gorilla gorilla graueri [it may be a subspecies of Gorilla gorilla beringei]
              Pan
                    Pan paniscus (pygmy chimpanzee; bonobo) 
                    Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee) [subspecies classification are in need of revision]
                       Pan troglodytes troglodytes
                       Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii
                       Pan troglodytes verus
              Homo
                    Homo sapiens (human) 
return to top


Taxonomy according to Wilson and Reeder (1993)
Source:
Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (1993) Mammal species of the world
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London in association with the American Society of Mammalogists  

Family Hylobatidae Gray,1871.Cat.Monkeys, Lemurs, Fruit-eatng Bats Brit.Mus.,p.4.
  Hylobates Illiger,1811.Prodr.Syst.Mamm.Avium.,p.67.
    Hylobates agilis F.Cuvier,1821.In E.Geoffroy and F.Cuvier,Hist.Nat.Mammiferes,pt.2,3(32):1-3,"Wouwou"
    Hylobates concolor (Harlan,1826).J.Acad.Nat.Sci.Philadelphia,ser.5,4:231.
    Hylobates gabriellae Thomas,1909.Ann.Mag.Nat.Hist.,ser.8,4:112.
    Hylobates hoolock (Harlan,1834).Trans.Am.Philos.Soc.,4:52.
    Hylobates klossii (Miller,1903).Smithson.Misc.Coll.,45:70.
    Hylobates lar (Linnaeus,1771).Mantissa Plantarum,p.521.
    Hylobates leucogenys Ogilby,1840.Proc.Zool.Soc.Lond.,1840:20.
    Hylobates moloch (Audebert,1798).Hist.Nat.Singes Makis,1st fasc.,sect.2,pl.2.
    Hylobates muelleri Martin,1841.Nat.Hist.Mamm.Anim.,p.444. 
    Hylobates pileatus (Gray,1861).Proc.Zool.Soc.Lond.,1861:136.
    Hylobates syndactylus (raffeles,1821).Trans.Linn.Soc.London,13:241.

Family Hominidae Gray,1825.Ann.Philos.,n.s.,10:344.
  Gorilla (I.Geoffroy,1852).C.R.Acad.Sci.Paris,36:933.
    Gorilla gorilla (Savage and Wyman,1847).Boston J.Nat.Hist.,5:417.
  Homo Linnaeus,1758.Syst.Nat.,10th ed.,1:20
    Homo sapiens Linnaeus,1758.Syst.,10th ed.,1:20.
  Pan Oken,1816.Lehrb.Naturgesch.,ser.3,2:xi
    Pan paniscus Schwartz,1929.Rev.Zool.Bot.Afr.,16:4.
    Pan troglodytes (Blumenbach,1775).De generis humani varietate nativa,p.37.
  Pongo Lacepede,1799.Tabl.Div.Subd.Orders Genres Mammiferes,p.4.
    Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus,1760).Amoenit.Acad.,6:68.    
return to top


Taxonomy according to Walker's Mammals of the World Fifth edition (1991)
Source:
Nowark R. M. (1991) Walker's Mammals of the World Fifth edition. Volume I.
The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.  ISBN 0-8018-3970-X

Hylobatidae (gibbon and siamong)
              Hylobates [Illiger, 1811]
              	subgenus Nomascus [Miller, 1933]
                     Hylobates concolor (crested gibbon) 
             	subgenus Symphalangus [Gloger, 1841]
                     Hylobates syndactylus (siamang) 
             	subgenus Bunopithecus [Matthew and Granger, 1923]
                     Hylobates hoolock (hoolock gibbon)
             	subgenus Hylobates [Illiger, 1811]
                     Hylobates agilis (dark-handed gibbon) 
                     Hylobates klossii (Kloss's gibbon) 
                     Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon) 
                     Hylobates molock (silvery gibbon)
                     Hylobates muelleri (gray gibbon) 
                     Hylobates pileatus  (capped gibbon)
             
Pongidae (great apes)
              Pongo [Lacepede, 1799] 
                    Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan) 
                       Pongo pygmaeus abelii (Sumatran orangutan) 
                       Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus (Bornean orangutan) 
              Gorilla [I. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1852]
                    Gorilla gorilla (gorilla) 
                       Gorilla gorilla beringei (mountain gorilla) 
                       Gorilla gorilla gorilla (western lowland gorilla) 
                       Gorilla gorilla graueri (eastern lowland gorilla)
              Pan [Oken, 1816]
                    Pan paniscus (pygmy chimpanzee, bonobo) 
                    Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee) 

Hominidae (human)
              Homo [Linnaeus, 1758]
                    Homo sapiens (human) 
return to top


Taxonomy according to Napier and Napier (1985)
Source:
Napier J. R. and Napier P. H. (1985) The natural history of the primates.  
MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.  ISBN 0-262-14039-X

Hylobatidae (gibbon and siamong)
              Hylobates
                     Hylobates concolor (black gibbon; crested gibbon) 
                     Hylobates hoolock (hoolock gibbon)
                     Hylobates klossii (Kloss's gibbon; Mentawai Island gibbon, beeloh) 
                     Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon; lar gibbon, agile gibbon, silvery gibbon) 
                     Hylobates pileatus  (pileated gibbon; capped gibbon)
                     Hylobates syndactylus (siamang) 
            
Pongidae (great apes)
              Pongo 
                    Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan) 
              Gorilla 
                    Gorilla gorilla (gorilla) 
              Pan
                    Pan paniscus (pygmy chimpanzee) 
                    Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee) 

Hominidae (human)
              Homo 
                    Homo sapiens (human) 
return to top


Taxonomy according to NCBI
Source:
NCBI Taxonomy web page

Hylobatidae (gibbons)
              Hylobates
                     Hylobates agilis (agile gibbon) 
                     Hylobates concolor (crested gibbon) 
                     Hylobates gabriellae (red-cheeked gibbon) 
                     Hylobates hoolock 
                     Hylobates klossii (Kloss's gibbon) 
                     Hylobates lar (common gibbon) 
                     Hylobates leukogenys (white-cheeked gibbon) 
                     Hylobates moolock 
                     Hylobates muelleri (Mueller's gibbon) 
                     Hylobates pileatus  (pileated gibbon)
                     Hylobates syndactylus (siamang) 
            
Hominidae (great apes and human)
              Pongo 
                    Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan) 
                       Pongo pygmaeus abelii (Sumatran orangutan) 
                       Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus (Bornean orangutan) 
              Gorilla 
                    Gorilla gorilla (gorilla) 
                       Gorilla gorilla beringei (mountain gorilla) 
                       Gorilla gorilla gorilla (lowland gorilla) 
                       Gorilla gorilla graueri 
              Pan (chimpanzee)
                    Pan paniscus (pygmy chimpanzee) 
                    Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee; common chimpanzee) 
                       Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii 
                       Pan troglodytes troglodytes 
                       Pan troglodytes verus 
              Homo 
                    Homo sapiens (human)
return to top  


Taxonomy according to www.primates.co.uk
Source:
Their web page

Family Hylobatidae 
       Hylobates 
            (Hylobates agilis) Agile gibbon 
            (Hylobates concolor) Crested gibbon 
            (Hylobates hoolock) Hoolock gibbon 
            (Hylobates klossii) Kloss's gibbon 
            (Hylobates lar) Common gibbon 
            (Hylobates moloch) Javan gibbon 
            (Hylobates muelleri) Muller's gibbon 
            (Hylobates pileatus) Pileated gibbon 
            (Hylobates syndactylus) Siamang 

Family Pongidae 
       Pongo 
            (Pongo pygmaeus) Orang-utan 
       Pan 
            (Pan paniscus) Bonobo 
            (Pan troglodytes) Chimpanzee 
       Gorilla 
            (Gorilla gorilla) Gorilla 
       Homo 
            (Homo sapiens) Human 
return to top  

                   

Last updated: 9/9/00